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Chap 10

Origins of Food Production and Settled Life


14,000 years ago
End of Ice Age (Pleistocene)
Less big-game hunting (megafauna extinct)
More dependence on stationary food resources
Small game, fish, shell-fish, wild plants
Called “broad-spectrum collecting”
“Mesolithic” in Europe
“Archaic”  in New World
Followed by “Neolithic Revolution”
(change to “food production)

Preagricultural Developments

Near East
In Near East increase use of wild grains
More sedentary (stationary) lives
Dense strands of wild wheat and barley
(grown in highlands)

Natufian Culture

11,000 years ago (Israel, Jordan)
Early permanent settlement
Circular stone pit houses
Sickle used
Wild grains intensively harvested
Plastered storage pits
Earliest known storage surplus grains


New World
Similar shift toward broad-spectrum hunting and gathering
(Climate change 10,000 years ago at end of Paleoindian Period)
Called “Archaic” in Highland Mesoamerica (& other areas) 

Why Did Broad-Spectrum Collecting Develop?

Preagricultural switch to broad spectrum collecting
(throughout world)
Some theories why
1. Climate change - decline of large herd animals
2. Overkill of animals - humans hunting
3. Population growth 

Domestication of Plants and Animals
Neolithic "new stone age"
Period defined by domesticated plants and animals
(most important development)
Starts in Near East around 8.000 B.C.
Pottery and ground stone tools found

Cultivation refers to planting crops
Domestication  when crops or animals are modified
For example wild wheat has a fragile stem or rachis
Stem of domesticated grains do not shatter easily
Domestication in the Near East
Fertile Crescent
One of earliest center of domestication
Arc from Israel, to Turkey, and southward to Iran
By 8,000 B.C., domesticated wheat, oats, rye, barley, lentils, peas, fruits
Dogs, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs
The Fertile Crescent
1. Ali Kosh
(Early Neolithic village)
Site in Iran
Multi-room structures
(cut little slabs of clay)
Courtyards, brick ovens

Cultivated wheat at Ali Kosh
Domesticated goats
Long-distance trading
(obsidian from Turkey)

2.Catal Huyuk                                                       
Mud-brick town  (Neolithic)
Southern Turkey
Pueblo fashion houses
Shrine rooms with cattle theme
Farming advanced at Catal Huyuk: Wheat, barley, peas
Center for cattle domestication
Brick houses - murals, shrines - bulls
Domestication in New World (Americas) and Other Areas
Maize in Mexico
Maize (corn) domesticated in Mexico
Domesticated from “teosinte”-a wild grass
Maize, beans, squash planted together
(maize and beans provide essential amino acids)
South America
Andes - potatoes, lima bean, chili pepper
Lowland - manioc, sweet potato
Eastern United States
Early domesticates (2000 B.C.)
Sunflowers, sumpweed, goosefoot
(before corn)


Less domesticated animals in New World
In North America - turkey and dog mainly
Andes - llama, alpaca, guinea pig
East Asia
China - earliest evidence of grain cultivation outside Near East
North China - millet, pigs
South China - rice, water buffalo
Southeast Asia
Taro, yams, breadfruit, coconuts, bananas
Sorghum, millet, peanuts, yams

Why Did Food Production Develop?

1.Gordon Childes' “Oasis” theory

Drastic change in climate in Near East
Less rainfall and wild resources
Retreated to “oases” of food resources surrounded by desert

2. “Natural Habitat”

 Innovation when culture ready
When they learned enough about environment
Domesticate near wild resources

3. “Population growth”

 Force to move to marginal areas
Most explanations involved forced change

4. Recent theories of climate change

In Near East weather change involved

Consequences of Food Production

1. Accelerated population growth
2. Declining health
3. Elaboration of Material Possessions

Chap 11

 Development of “Early civilizations”
 Often called “Bronze  Age” in Old World
Sequence (Near East)
Starting from small farming villages
Evidence of status difference appears
Some communities specialize in crafts and grow larger
Some political authorities control several communities
“Chiefdoms” emerge as final step

Characteristics of Early Civilizations
1) Large cities
2) Monumental architecture - public buildings, temples
3) Great differences wealth,  status, social stratification
4) Writing (not all)
5) Full-time specialists - craft, religious, political
6) States - strong central political organization
7) Most ancient civilizations arose in Near East around 3500 B.C.
This transformation occurs many times in other areas
Cities & States in Southern Iraq
First Cities in World
Lowland Plains (Mesopotamia)
Tigres and Eurphrates rivers
Area know as “Sumer

Sumer I. Formative Era
Sumer (southern Mesopotamia)
Farming settlements
Small-scale irrigation
Villages specializing in goods
Temples and chiefdoms

Sumerian II. Civilization

Walled cities, urban centers
Unification, single government, empire
Large temples
Horse-drawn chariots
Writing (Sumer)
In Summer around 3000 B.C.

First evidence of writing

Ledgers - inventories (economic)
Cuneiform” (impressed on clay)
In Egypt writing on papyrus reeds
Called “hieroglyphics”
Cities and States in Mesoamerica
Formative Period (Teotihuacan)
Small scattered farming villages
Small "elite" centers with temples
(note: similar “formative” phase at Sumer)
Becomes first great New World city state
By A.D. 500, population of l00,000
Large scale architecture
Pyramids of Sun and Moon
Two large pyramids dominate Teotihuacan


At Teotihuacan large numbers of people engaged in production
and long distance trade
(obsidian deposits nearby)
Monte Alban
Earlier city (500 B.C.)
Interesting contrast
No crafts, trade or resources
Neutral political center

Other Centers of Mesoamerican Civilizations
Olmec, Mayans, Aztecs also had centers with monumental architecture

The First Cities and States in Other Areas
Arose independently
(not by colonization or conquest)

Indus Valley (India)

South America
North America  (Cahokia - a chiefdom or state?)
Theories about the Origin of States
1. Irrigation
 Administration of labor.
2. Population Growth, Circumscription, and War
Competition and warfare, subordination
3. Local and Long-Distance Trade
Requires organization to produce, redistribute, defend routes

The Consequences of State Formation
Larger and denser populations
Increased agricultural production (irrigation)
 Specialization - craftspeople, merchants, soldiers, political leaders
Art, music, literature often flourish
Organized religion develops
Often negative consequences
People governed by force
Class stratification creates an underclass of poor people
States expand - state warfare and conquest
State expansion has caused most human suffering4

The Decline and Collapse of Early states (explanations vary)

Chap. 12

Human Variation

Processes In Human Variation
1. Adaptation
Mutations (changes in gene structure) are ultimate source of genetic variations
Natural selection favors certain genes
Genes which are adaptive to physical environment become more frequent
2. Acclimatization
Physical environment produces variation
Influence without genetic change
Non-genetic factors include
1. Climate
2. Nutrients
3. Disease
3. Influence of Cultural Environment
Modification of microenvironment lessens genetic adaptation
(heat, clothing, A/C)
Also, individual cultures have behaviors that cause physical variation
Head binding among Inca   
Physical Variation In Human Populations
Surface most noticeable
Body build, skin color, height
Internal as important
Disease resistance

1. Body Build
Scientists suggest body build of many birds and mammals
Varies according to temperature (climate)
Bergmann's Rule
 (size: slender in hot climate)
Allen's Rule
(limbs:  shorter in cold)
2. Skin Color
Depends of amount of dark pigment melanin
and amount of blood in small vessels in skin
Among humans darker skin offers more UV protection
Lighter skin absorbs UV , produces Vitamin D (incorporate calcium)

3. Adaptation to High Altitude
Less barometric pressure at high altitudes
Called “hypoxia” when breathing difficult
Humans may adapt to hypoxia in their lifetime
Develop larger lung capacity

4. Height
Genetic(heredity) or non-genetic
Non-genetic conditions
1. Nutrition (dramatic change)
2. Stress hypothesis
(petted rats larger)

5. Susceptibility to Infectious Disease
1. Genetic factors
   Populations become resistant
2. Cultural factors
   Visiting may spread disease

6. Sickle-Cell Anemia
Abnormal red blood cell
Equatorial Africa, Greece, Sicily and southern India
Malaria at these areas
Heterozygous decreases malaria deaths
(favorable adaptation)

7. Lactase Deficiency
After infancy many people lack lactase
An enzyme to  process lactose sugar in milk
Milk intolerance occurs frequently
African Americans, in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, India, the Mediterranean,
Near East, among Native North and South Americans

Explanation Why Milk Tolerant
Why adults produce lactase
1. Genetic adaptation to dairy farming
2..Genetic adaptation to higher latitudes
(Lactose aids absorption of calcium)

                    "Race" and Racism                         
Biological anthropologists concluded that concept of “race” among humans is not useful
Term “race” when applied to humans often involves “racism”
Racism - belief that some are inferior to others

The Myths of Racism

1. "Race" and Civilization
Some with racist viewpoint argued that “developed” nations were “white”
This is historically very incorrect
Many so called ”undeveloped" nations had civilizations long before Europe
3. Race and Behavior
Anthropologists - no genetic basis of behavior differences between races
  4. "Race" and Intelligence
No relation 
Scores (IQ test) influenced by social environment (economics, education)
The Future of  Human Variation
Variability advantageous
Uniformity could lead to extinction

Chap 13

Concept of Culture

Defining Features of Culture
F   Culture-total way of life of any society.
F   Most anthropologists define as-
F   “the set of learned behaviors, beliefs, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society”

Culture Is Commonly Shared
F   Cultural behavior is shared
F   We share cultural characteristics with
F   1.  Segments of our population with  similar background
F   2.  Other North Americans have  much in common
F   3.   Other countries (international)  have similar traditions

F   A “culture” refers to shared characteristics of a society
F   A “subculture” refers to  shared customs of a group within a society
Culture Is Learned
F   Cultural behavior is learned
F   Not instinctive
F   Most learned behavior acquired with language

F   System spoken symbolic communication
F   Symbolic - represents something not necessarily present

F   Anthropologists concerned with cultural characteristics of a society
F   Society - group of people, occupy a particular territory, speak  common language
F   Does not necessarily correspond to countries or nations

Attitudes That Hinder the Study of Cultures



F    Negative evaluation
F   Judge other cultures with own values
F   “Early evolutionism” approach in 1870’s claimed
F   Culture develops in stages and
F   Western culture was highest level
F   This was ethnocentric

Cultural Relativism

F   20th century anthropologists  
F   Describe a society objectively
F   Should understand customs in context of a particular societies problems

Describing Cultures

Describing a Culture
F   How does an anthropologist determine which particular behaviors, values, and beliefs of individuals are cultural?
F   Must take into account individual variation, normal behavior, how behavior is controlled, and what behavior actually follows rules

Individual Variation
F   Anthropologists focus on range of customary behavior.
F   Individual behaviors vary within culturally acceptable limits
Cultural Constraints
F   The culture itself limits individual behavior
F   (Norms - standards or rules about acceptable behavior)
F   Constraints are
–  Direct - laws, punishment
–  Indirect - ridicule, isolation
Ideal versus Actual Cultural Patterns
F   Behavior does not agree with standards
F   Ideal - expressed standards
F   Real - actual behavior

How to Discover Cultural Patterns
F   Two basic ways anthropologists discover cultural patterns
F   1.  Aid of few knowledgeable persons       (if a fairly obvious pattern)
F   2.  Sample of population (if pattern is not as clear)
F   A random representative sample is best

Some Assumptions about Culture

Culture Is Generally Adaptive
–  Maladaptive customs - diminish survival
–  Adaptive customs - enhance survival
–  Culture makes adjustments  to
–  1. Social environment
–  2. Physical environment
Culture Is Mostly Integrated
–  Customs are consistent with one another (not random)
–  "Bundles" of adaptive traits tend to          occur together
–  Includes psychological integration
Culture Is Always Changing
–  Behaviors modified and replaced
–  Changes comes from inside or outside forces
–  Change in physical environment (move)
–  Changes in social environment (attitudes)
–  Contact by different societies (colonialism)

Chapter 15: 

Communication and Language


Includes linguistic and non-verbal methods
Facial expressions, gestures, and more

Nonhuman Communication

Communication not unique to humans
Animals communicate by sound, odor, movement
Previously thought only humans used symbolic communication

"Symbolic" because
1) has meaning even when referent not present
2) meaning of a sound is arbitrary (learned)

Recent research suggest some monkey, ape calls in wild seem symbolic
Example: vervet monkey(Africa) - eagle, python calls
Most primate (and animal) systems are closed
(don’t combine sounds into new meaning)
Human - learned, symbolic, open

Primate Studies

Chimps:Washoe ( ASL)
Sarah (plastic pieces)
Lana, Kanzi ( keyboard, computer)
Gorillas: Koko (ASL)
Conclusion: No Speech but some symbolic capability

Origins of Language

Start of human language not known
(many theories about when)
Natural selection favored open system
No insight from study of simple societies
There are no "primitive" languages
Language Acquisition Device

One theory of grammar suggest there is a language-acquisition devise innate to humans
(universal genetic "hard wired" biological mechanism)
However development of individual languages not biologically determined
About 5,000 languages identified - 2000 still spoken

What evidence for "Language-acquisition device" in human brain or origin of language?

1. Creole Languages

Combines vocabulary and grammar from two languages
Similarities in different areas suggest universal human grammar?
2. Children’s Acquisition of Language

Similar learning universally suggest an inborn language acquisition device
Speech patterns seem similar in different languages
Descriptive Linguistics

Descriptive (structural) linguistics tries to discover rules about
1. Phonology
2. Morphology
3. Syntax

1. Phonology (sounds)

Phones -speech sounds
Phonemes - sound or set of sounds making a difference in meaning

Phonemes are the smallest or minimum range of sounds that distinguish meaning
(perceived as distinct)
(may include more than one sound or phone)
Phones & phoneme examples (not on test)

Samoan - /l/ and /r/ two different sounds (phones) equal one phoneme
English - pronounce "a" in and differently from the "a" in air (two phones)
English "p" in spin and "p" in pin
Spanish "v" and "b"

2. Morphology

Concerned with words and meanings
Morphs and morphemes - are smallest and small units of meaning
(Not considered separately this class)
Morphemes are sometimes words or parts of words

Free morpheme can stand along
Bound morpheme is attached
Morpheme examples (not on test)

Cows = two units of meaning
(cow & suffix "s" for more than one)
The "ed" in "walked" is bound
The word "toasters" has three morphemes (units of meaning)
toast - er - s

3. Syntax (phrases, sentences)

Rules of sentence or phrase making (arranging words)

Example: "Child the dog the hit" (incorrect grammar - word order)

Historical Linguistics

Study how languages change over time
By comparing contemporary languages that are similar
May reconstruct ancestral language
Languages may also be similar because of borrowing
(English has many words from French)

Language Families & Culture History

Protolanguage - reconstructed ancestral language
Language Family - languages descended from same ancestral language
(30 families today)
Language Branches or Groups - closely related in family


English is an Indo-European language
English belongs to Germanic branch
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is name given to ancestral language


Possibly origins of PIE suggested as 5 - 6,000 years in Ukraine
Anatolia (Turkey) also proposed origin

Some research based on cognates
(words similar sound and meaning)
Similar words for plants and animals may refer to plants and animals that were present in original homeland

Also research based on dialects
(varying forms of a language)

Point of origin is where there is greatest diversity of related languages
Most time for diversity
The Process of Linguistic Divergence

Not covered this term
Relationships between Language and Culture

Cultural Influences on Language

A societies' culture reflected by its vocabulary
Basic Words (not covered)
Grammar (not covered)
Linguistic Influences on Culture

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Different languages produce different ways of thinking
Language provides habitual grooves of expression

Sapir-Whorf Examples

Hopi- do not express time in as definite categories as English
Hebrew has more gender emphasis than English and Finnish.
Yucatec Maya nouns do not indicate number (plural or singular) as in English.

The Ethnography of Speaking

Linguist interested in how people in a given society vary in how they speak
Sociolinguistics - speech variation in different social contexts
Variables included:
1. Social Status
(pronunciation, titles, first names)
2.Gender Differences
(more differences in some societies)

3. Multilingualism and Codeswitching
(Using more than one language in a conversation)
4. Interethnic Communication
(Different unconscious rules about how to have a conversation)
(for example how long to pause)

Chap 16: Getting Food


Food-getting activity primary
Influences other parts of culture
(community size, social and political organization)
(even art styles and religious practices)
For millions of years humans used wild plants and animals
Agriculture recent

A. Food-Collection

Food Collecting
Foragers "hunter-gatherers"
Subsistence technology
Wild plants and animals
Now mostly marginal areas.

Different Environments

Australian Aborigines
(Desert - mostly plants)
The Inuit (Eskimo)
(Arctic- fish, sea , land mammals)

General Features:Collectors

Small communities
No individual land rights
No classes(egalitarian)
No full-time specialists
Division of labor by age and sex
Men hunt, women gather plants!

!Kung Example

Southern Africa (called Ju/’ hoansi)
Women gathering important
Men hunt
Relatively few hours collecting
(Average 17 hours per week)
More leisure time than agriculturalists

B. Food Production

Horticulture, Pastoralism, Intensive Agriculture
Domesticated plants and animals
Started around 10,000 years ago at separate locations
1. Horticulture

Crops grown with simple hand tools
No plows
No irrigation
No fertilizers
No permanent cultivated fields

Two types (horticulture)
1. Extensive or shifting cultivation (slash-and-burn)
(more common)
2. Tree crops
Most horticulturalists also hunt and fish
Some are nomadic part of year

Examples Horticulturalists

1. Yanomamo (Brazil, Venezuela)
Practice slash-and-burn
Garden include plantains, manioc, sweet potatoes, taro
2. Samoans ( Pacific Island)
Tree crops important
Breadfruit, coconuts, bananas, taro

General Features of Horticulturalists

Larger communities
More sedentary (sometimes move)
Beginnings of social differences
Part-time craftworkers
Part-time political officials

2. Intensive Agriculture

Cultivate permanent fields,
Fertilizer and irrigation
Technology more complex
Plows generally used
Varies from animal to tractor power
General Features Intensive Agriculture

Towns and cities
Craft specialization
Complex political organization
Differences wealth, power, land ownership, food shortages

3. Pastoralism

Domesticated herds of animals
Meat not as important as milk, sometimes blood
Trade important (with agricultural groups)
(Middle East "oriental" rugs sold)

Pastoralist Examples

1. Basseri (Iran)
Annual migrations
Sheep, goats, donkeys
2. Lapps (Scandinavia)
Herd reindeer
Use snowmobiles, helicopters

General Features: Pastoralists

Small communities
Animals owned by individuals or families
Decision to move made by community
Moderate differences in wealth
Frequent trade
Often in drought-prone areas
Mobility helps reduce overgrazing